## Solution for

Programming Exercise 11.4

THIS PAGE DISCUSSES ONE POSSIBLE SOLUTION to the following exercise from this on-line Java textbook.

Exercise 11.4:Section 11.4 explains how to use recursion to print out the items in a binary tree in various orders. That section also notes that a non-recursive subroutine can be used to print the items, provided that a stack or queue is used as an auxiliary data structure. Assuming that a queue is used, here is an algorithm for such a subroutine:Add the root node to an empty queue while the queue is not empty: Get a node from the queue Print the item in the node if node.left is not null: add it to the queue if node.right is not null: add it to the queueWrite a subroutine that implements this algorithm, and write a program to test the subroutine. Note that you will need a queue of

TreeNodes, so you will need to write a class to represent such queues.

Discussion

There's really not a lot to think about here, since such a complete algorithm is given. However, we do have to assemble the pieces. I use the standard binary tree node from Section 11.4 (except that I changed the name of the tree node class to

StrTreeNode). The algorithm needs a queue of tree nodes. To implement this, I copied theQueueOfIntsclass from Section 11.3 and changed the type of the items in the queue toStrTreeNode. I also changed the name toTreeQueue. I did this literally by copying the class from a Web browser window and pasting it into my source code file. With these classes in hand, the algorithm given in the exercise can be coded as:static void levelOrderPrint(StrTreeNode root) { // Use a queue to print all the strings in the tree to which // root points. (The nodes will be listed in "level order", // that is: first the root, then children of the root, then // grandchildren of the root, and so on.) if (root == null) return; // There is nothing to print in an empty tree. TreeQueue queue; // The queue. queue = new TreeQueue(); queue.enqueue(root); while ( queue.isEmpty() == false ) { StrTreeNode node = queue.dequeue(); System.out.println( node.item ); if ( node.left != null ) queue.enqueue( node.left ); if ( node.right != null ) queue.enqueue( node.right ); } } // end levelOrderPrint()The name of this routine comes from the order in which it prints out the nodes of the tree. Think of the root of the tree as being on the top "level" of the tree, the children of the root on the next level, the children of the children of the root on the next level, and so on. Then the subroutine prints the items in level order. That is, all the nodes on one level are printed before any of the nodes on the next level. This is a consequence of the way the algorithm processes the items. As items from one level are removed from the queue and printed, their children (which are the nodes on the next level) are added to the

backof the queue. Just after all the items from one level have been processed, the queue contains all the children of those items, ready to be processed next. Level-order tree traversals can't be done by recursion, so they are a standard application of queues.To test my subroutine, I wanted a reasonably large tree whose structure I knew, so I could check whether the nodes are printed in the correct order. (Since you didn't know about level-order traversals until now, on the other hand, you should have been mainly concerned with checking that all the nodes in the tree are printed, period.) I decided to create the binary sort tree shown in Section 11.4. To do this, I copied the

treeInsert()subroutine from that section and used it to add names to the tree in an order that would produce the tree I wanted. Finally, I calledlevelOrderPrint()to output the names from the tree. (It worked!)By the way, you might notice that the

levelOrderPrint()routine is very similar to the technique used in the grid-marking applet in Section 11.3. In fact they are just variations on the same idea. One difference is that in Section 11.3, the squares of the grid had to be marked as "visited" as they were processed to avoid going into an infinite loop. ThelevelOrderPrint()subroutine doesn't have to do the same type of marking because it is working on a tree. One of the defining properties of a tree is that it cannot contain a loop of nodes. That is, it is not possible for a node to be its own descendent. This restriction guarantees thatlevelOrderPrint()will not go into an infinite loop. The same property guarantees that all of our recursive tree-processing methods will not suffer from infinite recursion when they are applied to a tree. You should note, however, that it is possible to connect tree nodes into data structures that contain loops. These data structures are not trees, but they might have other uses. Many of the subroutines we've looked will fail if applied to such structures.

The Solution

/* This program includes a non-recursive subroutine that prints the nodes of a binary tree, using a queue. The main program simply tests that routine. (The nodes are printed in what is called "level order".) This file defines the queue and tree classes, as well as the main program. Not particularly good style... */ class StrTreeNode { // An object in this class is a node in a binary tree // in which the nodes contain items of type String. String item; // The item StrTreeNode left; // Pointer to left subtree. StrTreeNode right; // Pointer to right subtree. StrTreeNode( String str ) { // Constructor. Make a node to contain str. item = str; } } // end class StrTreeNode class TreeQueue { // An object of this type represents a queue of StrTreeNodes, // with the usual operations: dequeue, enqueue, isEmpty. private static class Node { // An object of type Node holds one of the items // in the linked list that represents the queue. StrTreeNode item; Node next; } private Node head = null; // Points to first Node in the queue. // The queue is empty when head is null. private Node tail = null; // Points to last Node in the queue. void enqueue( StrTreeNode tree ) { // Add N to the back of the queue. Node newTail = new Node(); // A Node to hold the new item. newTail.item = tree; if (head == null) { // The queue was empty. The new Node becomes // the only node in the list. Since it is both // the first and last node, both head and tail // point to it. head = newTail; tail = newTail; } else { // The new node becomes the new tail of the list. // (The head of the list is unaffected.) tail.next = newTail; tail = newTail; } } StrTreeNode dequeue() { // Remove and return the front item in the queue. // Note that this can throw a NullPointerException. StrTreeNode firstItem = head.item; head = head.next; // The previous second item is now first. if (head == null) { // The queue has become empty. The Node that was // deleted was the tail as well as the head of the // list, so now there is no tail. (Actually, the // class would work fine without this step.) tail = null; } return firstItem; } boolean isEmpty() { // Return true if the queue is empty. return (head == null); } } // end class TreeQueue public class TreePrintNR { // MAIN PROGRAM CLASS static StrTreeNode root; // A pointer to the root of the binary tree. static void levelOrderPrint(StrTreeNode root) { // Use a queue to print all the strings in the tree to which // root points. (The nodes will be listed in "level order", // that is: first the root, then children of the root, then // grandchildren of the root, and so on.) if (root == null) return; // There is nothing to print in an empty tree. TreeQueue queue; // The queue, which will only hold non-null nodes. queue = new TreeQueue(); queue.enqueue(root); while ( queue.isEmpty() == false ) { StrTreeNode node = queue.dequeue(); System.out.println( node.item ); if ( node.left != null ) queue.enqueue( node.left ); if ( node.right != null ) queue.enqueue( node.right ); } } // end levelOrderPrint() static void treeInsert(String newItem) { // Add the word to the binary sort tree to which the // global variable "root" refers. I will use this // routine only to create the sample tree on which // I will test levelOrderPrint(). if ( root == null ) { // The tree is empty. Set root to point to a new node // containing the new item. root = new StrTreeNode( newItem ); return; } StrTreeNode runner; // Runs down the tree to find a place for newItem. runner = root; // Start at the root. while (true) { if ( newItem.compareTo(runner.item) < 0 ) { // Since the new item is less than the item in runner, // it belongs in the left subtree of runner. If there // is an open space at runner.left, add a node there. // Otherwise, advance runner down one level to the left. if ( runner.left == null ) { runner.left = new StrTreeNode( newItem ); return; // New item has been added to the tree. } else runner = runner.left; } else { // Since the new item is greater than or equal to the // item in runner, it belongs in the right subtree of // runner. If there is an open space at runner.right, // add a new node there. Otherwise, advance runner // down one level to the right. if ( runner.right == null ) { runner.right = new StrTreeNode( newItem ); return; // New item has been added to the tree. } else runner = runner.right; } } // end while } // end treeInsert() public static void main(String[] args) { // Make a tree with a known form, then call levelOrderPrint() // for that tree. (I want to check that all the items from // the tree are printed, and I want to see the order in which // they are printed. The expected order of output is // judy bill mary alice fred tom dave jane joe. The // tree that is built here is from an illustration in // Section 11.4.) treeInsert("judy"); treeInsert("bill"); treeInsert("fred"); treeInsert("mary"); treeInsert("dave"); treeInsert("jane"); treeInsert("alice"); treeInsert("joe"); treeInsert("tom"); levelOrderPrint(root); } // end main() } // end class TreePrintNR

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